Hi DR Ryan here, medical oncologist AND PROFESSOR AND RETIRED COLONEL AND CANCER SURVIVOR and this is when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer. Modeled after my book of the same name available on th web site and Amazon
I am sure you are familiar with our opening song from chariots of fire. A man has a plan and in a day it is crushed…… so it is when you have been told you have cancer ,thoughts of loss of control, soul sucking anxiety, what about your family and the list goes on as it hits you like a ton of bricks.
He rose above it in the film and so you to will be a hero ………I have seen no exception no matter how afraid you are, FIRST OFF WE DID NOT GET TO THE QUESTIONS OF LAST WEEK ALTHOUGH THE TALK DID COVER THEM ALL LET’S JUST QUICKLY TAKE A LOOK WITH MY APOLOGIES
First answer questions J
just how do you know if there is a depressive state in things? Covered this
Can you see the depression in your self or others? Perhaps not little insight
What does depression look like? See list of symptoms
How does depression feel to people? Never and forever lie See list
How can you work with the depressive state? Very difficult
Should you have guilt being depressed? No no no guilt is part of the fisease in many see list especially inelderly
So its all in what you eat? No no no I was just being fair to unfounded claims The blood sugar and binging and starving that may occur ae bad however
Where do the good studies come from? There are none for food there are for depression in general ,meds, the integrative modalities and therapy
. Recently, Mehnert and colleagues reported a 31% prevalence rate for any psychiatric disorder in cancer patients. Rates for depression vary from 11% to 37%,. The rate for depression in the general population is 7%—and thus HIGHER among cancer patients—THE RATE OF SUICIDE IS TWICE THE NORMAL POPULATION
7 Physical Clues You Could Have Depression
Many people who suffer from chronic illnesses also suffer from depression. Depression isn’t something that should be overlooked; it should be brought to your doctor’s attention so that it can be treated. But how do you spot depression? With help from prevention.com, we’ve put together a list of some of the most common physical signs that someone is suffering from depression.
Aches and Pains
Although many chronic illnesses have their share of aches and pains, depression can also make muscles and joints feel sore or exacerbate the problem. People who are happy or content generally feel pain less than those who have depression.
Difficulty Sleeping or Waking Through the Night
Not being able to relax enough to fall asleep or frequently waking up during the night and finding it difficult to go back to sleep could both be signs of depression. Lack of sleep or disturbed sleep can have a profound effect on mood and the ability to concentrate.
Changes in Weight
Loss of appetite or comfort eating are both associated with depression, but you may not realize you have either until you step on the scale and notice a difference. In addition, if you’re not sleeping well because you’re anxious or depressed, this can also mess with your appetite leading to weight loss or gain.
Because depression affects hormones, this often becomes apparent in our skin. Depression can lead to skin complaints like acne, psoriasis, and eczema and treating the depression can help with the skin complaint.
Mood definitely affects the gut, and people with depression may suffer from symptoms like nausea, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn and indigestion.
Headaches and Migraines
People with depression are more likely to experience frequent headaches or migraines. Although this could also be a side effect of medication or treatments you take for your chronic illness.
Dentists in Australia have found people with depression are more likely to need dental work such as tooth extractions and cavities than those who don’t. The thought behind this is that if you’re depressed, you’re less likely to be as diligent about oral health.
Depression questionqaire IS KEY
growing body of evidence that mental and physical health do not function on separate planes, and that one can influence the other.
Since most cancer occur is the elderly and cancer is proportional with age and depression may look different than just those simple 7 symptoms Diagnosing Depression IN THE ELDERLY is somewhat different
Common symptoms of depression—fatigue, diminished concentration, thoughts of death/suicide, weight loss/gain—are confounded with side effects from cancer treatments or, potentially, the cancer itself.
The literature suggests that two gateway symptoms—depressed mood and loss of interest—are most valuable in diagnosing depression in cancer, but identifying these symptoms is not necessarily useful in older adults.
“The gateway questions come off the table as less than useful diagnostic criteria when we combine cancer and aging. “
Major and Minor Themes
anhedonia depressed mood without sadness , reduction in social relationships/loneliness, loss of meaning and purpose, and lack of usefulness and sense of being a burden. These are big and also seen somewhat in younger patients
Four minor themes also emerge: attitude toward treatment, mood, regret and guilt, and physical symptoms and limitations.
Another central issue was loneliness, depressed patients tended to have limited meaningful relationships and were socially isolated and withdrawn.
Loss of meaning and purpose in life was STRONGLY PRESENT and they display an inability to adjust to their new limitations. “rumination THIS IS CRITICAL AND PATIENTS GO BACK TO IT (WHAT THEY DID IN THE PAST) OVER AND OVER AGAIN Lack of usefulness and sense of being a burden is also displayed in all depressed.
There was no difference between depressed and non depressed participants in terms of their willingness to engage in treatment, but attitude toward treatment different“
The non depressed are much more proactive regarding their treatment, whereas the depressed are resentful, angry, and upset about their treatment,”
Both depressed and non depressed look back at their lives and experience some level of regret, but the amount of guilt experienced the differentiating factor between the non depressed and the depressed. “The depressed patients seemed to ruminate on their regrets, whereas the non depressed are able to put their regrets in a tolerable perspective,”
No actual difference in physical limitations is observed between the two groups, but a difference is noted in how they cope with those limitations. Depressed do not adapt.
LECTURE 6 PART 1 BLOG IT AND SUBMIT IHEART FORM
BUT WE MUST KNOW THAT WHICH WE ARE AFRAID OF WE MUST KNOW THE ERSONALITY OF THE BEAST TO BE BETTER ABLE TO FIGHT IT , WE MUST KNOW THE ENEMY AND THAT IS WHAT WE ARE GOING TO TALK ABOUT TODAY AND NEXT WEEK
First, a Parable
Winter was coming early to the western Cordillera range of the Sierra Nevada and the mountain man knew it was time to head down to safer ground. Packing his mule, he heard from behind a cold craggy granite precipice the unmistakable hissing and eerie rattle of the deadly western diamond back. Then, as strange as it seems, the snake spoke and began pleading with the rugged frontiersman. “Pleasssse, oh Pleassse.”, it begged while hissing, “Winter has come early and I will ssssurely freesssse if you do not put me in your pack and take me down to ssssafer warmer ground”
Hard won experience had told the mountain man to be wary. He declined, stating firmly, “You will surely bite me before the trail is through”. The snake assured him he would never do such a thing if the man would save him. Thus, reckoning back to lessons from his ma and pa long since dead after hard laboring the rocky western Kentucky soil, the cautious but kindly outdoorsman took pity on one of God’s creatures. Carefully, against his gut instincts, he placed the viper in his pack and headed to lower, warmer ground.
At the end of the journey, as promised, he reached into the pack to release the viper. Of course the snake struck, injecting the outdoorsman with blindingly painful venom and the near certainty of an ugly and lonely demise. The Good Samaritan of the frontier was enraged and while still lucid reminded the snake of his promise.
The snake replied, slowly and sincerely, “but you knew I wassss a sssnake when you helped me, I just did what sssnakes do”
…. and so it is with the enemy, cancer.
“They’re toast”. That is not a rare expression uttered by some physicians in private when hearing of a severely threatening diagnosis. I have heard this common irreverent comment and similar ones uttered by my colleagues and young residents when referring to those newly diagnosed with cancer. Curiously, these flippant declarations do not always follow a diagnosis of advanced or terminal disease. These insensitive quips have even popped out at the mere confirmation of the mere diagnosis before any determination of stage or degree of severity. Why? It is because cancer is the ultimate terrorist, the perfect enemy.
Cancer, the anathema, the incubus; nothing evokes more fear. There is no greater pariah to caretaker, clinician or patient. Indeed the very origin of the word “cancer,” from “crab” speaks legions regarding the dread with which we regard the word. Why is this?
Perhaps we fear cancers’ amazing talent for infernal mimicry of the norm. Cancer cells imitate normal cells, but perversely. Perhaps we detest the macabre brilliance by which cancer cells systematically unravel the elegant mysteries of normal cells. Cancer cells, regarded by some scientists intellectually as little medical miracles, take their cue from normalcy but with a deviant twist. They grow; constantly, irrepressibly.
Their mere presence conjures up visions of evil humors reminiscent of those alluded to by Galen, the ancient Greek founding father of medicine, as they swarm over the unsuspecting patient. They are admirably ingenious rogues with innumerable deceptions cloaking them from our immune systems’ elegant surveillance and intelligence network. They have amazing techniques that protect them from detection and eradication.
Cancer cells will also not stay put. They marshal innocent patients’ wondrous blood vessel factories and command those factories to build an evil network of canals and thoroughfares of new vessels which bring the malignant little monsters nourishment and usher them on journeys to distant organs to wreak havoc. These princes of parasitism suck essential nutrients from us, decimating our defenses. Some cause local mayhem, blocking critical passageways, bowel and bladder alike. Some make us weep blood. Some sneak off to the otherwise pristine recesses of the brain confounding movement and sensation while causing neurological crises. Malignant and malevolent, it is no wonder we hate cancer with unbridled passion.
It is so poignant that in our battle against cancer we employ potent poisons in a sort of chemical and biological warfare. These therapies frequently count on the “good guys”, our normal tissues, to hang in there despite the sometimes enormous toll therapy exacts on the body. The quest is rather daunting; to kill a cancer cell and still leave normal cells and tissues largely undisturbed and surviving normally. For some, successful surgical removal of the cancer holds a pivotal place in the armamentarium. For others, blasting away with radiation is the treatment. Others receive chemical, biological or combined assaults.
Cancer can be and is often killed. However, biologically resistant and insolent to the last, this enemy will not die without a fight and without a fight, the patient often will
Some CANCER BASICS
HOW DO LIVER CELLS KNOW WHEN IT IS TIME TO STOP GROWING BECAUSE THEY HAVE REACHED LIVER NESS
And so it goes for every other organ
in cancer the cells do not stop , they escape or impair immune detection or fool it , They simplY do not stop having children. They do not stop growing .
they have ways of turning off natural timing of cells death or making vascular highways for themselves to feed themselves as well as have highways to travel on and spread either by direct extension or through the blood
What Is Cancer?
Cancer can start any place in the body. It starts when cells grow out of control and crowd out normal cells. This makes it hard for the body to work the way it should.
Cancer can be treated very well for many people. In fact, more people than ever before lead full lives after cancer treatment. 65% The numbers used to be opposite
Here we will explain what cancer is and how it’s treated. You’ll find a list of words about cancer and what they mean at the end of this booklet.
How cancer begins
Cells are the basic units that make up the human body. Cells grow and divide to make new cells as the body needs them. Usually, when cells get too old or damaged, they die. Then new cells take their place. AT A NORMAL HEALTHY PACE
Cancer begins when genetic changes impair this orderly process. Cells start to grow uncontrollably. These cells may form a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.
Some types of cancer do not form a tumor. These include leukemias, most types of lymphoma, and myeloma.
Cancer is caused by changes (mutations) to the DNA within cancer cells. The DNA inside a cell is packaged into a large number of individual genes, each of which contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. Errors in the instructions can cause the cell to stop its normal function and may allow a cell to become cancerous.
What do gene mutations do?
A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to:
- Allow rapid growth. A gene mutation can tell a cell to grow and divide more rapidly. This creates many new cells that all have that same mutation.
- Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth. Normal cells know when to stop growing so that you have just the right number of each type of cell. Cancer cells lose the controls (tumor suppressor genes) that tell them when to stop growing. A mutation in a tumor suppressor gene allows cancer cells to continue growing and accumulating.
- Gene mutations can cause normal cells to Make mistakes when repairing DNA errors. DNA repair genes look for errors in a cell’s DNA and make corrections. A mutation in a DNA repair gene may mean that other errors aren’t corrected, leading cells to become cancerous.
Those mutations are the most common ones found in cancer. But many other gene mutations can contribute to causing cancer.
What causes gene mutations?
Gene mutations can occur for several reasons, for instance:
- Gene mutations you’re born with. You may be born with a genetic mutation that you inherited from your parents. This type of mutation accounts for a small percentage of cancers. Perhaps 5-8%
- Gene mutations that occur after birth. Most gene mutations occur after you’re born and aren’t inherited. A number of forces can cause gene mutations, such as smoking, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormones, chronic inflammation and a lack of exercise.
Gene mutations occur frequently during normal cell growth. However, cells and especially those in our immune system when it works correctly contain a mechanism that recognizes when a mistake occurs and repairs the mistake. Occasionally, a mistake is missed. This could cause a cell to become cancerous.
How do gene mutations interact with each other?
The gene mutations you’re born with and those that you acquire throughout your life work together to cause cancer.
For instance, if you’ve inherited a genetic mutation that predisposes you to cancer, that doesn’t mean you’re certain to get cancer. Instead, you may need one or more other gene mutations to cause cancer. Your inherited gene mutation could make you more likely than other people to develop cancer when exposed to a certain cancer-causing substance.
It’s not clear just how many mutations must accumulate for cancer to form. It’s likely that this varies among cancer types
While doctors have an idea of what may increase your risk of cancer, MANY of cancers occur in people who don’t have any known risk factors. Factors known to increase your risk of cancer include:
A big factor Cancer can take decades to develop. That’s why most people diagnosed with cancer are 65 or older. While it’s more common in older adults, cancer isn’t exclusively an adult disease — cancer can be diagnosed at any age.
Certain lifestyle choices are known to increase your risk of cancer. Smoking, drinking more than one alcoholic drink a day (for women of all ages and men older than age 65) or two drinks a day (for men age 65 and younger), excessive exposure to the sun or frequent blistering sunburns, being obese, and having unsafe sex can contribute to cancer.
You can change these habits to lower your risk of cancer — though some habits are easier to change than others.
Your family history
Only a small portion of cancers are due to an inherited condition. If cancer is common in your family, it’s possible that mutations are being passed from one generation to the next. You might be a candidate for genetic testing to see whether you have inherited mutations that might increase your risk of certain cancers. Keep in mind that having an inherited genetic mutation doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll get cancer.
Your health conditions
Some chronic health conditions, such as ulcerative colitis, can markedly increase your risk of developing certain cancers. Talk to your doctor about your risk. Chronic inflammatory states
The environment around you may contain harmful chemicals that can increase your risk of cancer. Even if you don’t smoke, you might inhale secondhand smoke if you go where people are smoking or if you live with someone who smokes. Chemicals in your home or workplace, such as asbestos and benzene, also are associated with an increased risk of cancer
Cancer is a scary and complex disease. Even when it’s caught early and with good odds for surviving and living a long, healthy life, there are a lot of people who develop cancer each year—and, sadly, not everyone survives it. Most cancers develop depending on several factors, but research has identified many contributing causes of cancer. Some are obvious and preventable, while others are the simple yet unfortunate result of genetics. And although many cancers have a high probability of being beat, the lack of proper or available medical care in certain areas, and even whole countries, can greatly impact the survival rate.
Taking into account the complexity of the disease and recognizing that many factors usually contribute to developing it, here’s again the wide range of what causes cancer— a little more in depth and some tips to change what you can to prevent the disease…
1. The Sun
The damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun have been studied immensely over the years. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, UV is a proven carcinogen that in excess, can lead to skin cancer as a result of gene mutations from exposure to these harmful rays. There are various types of skin cancer that UV rays can cause or contribute to the risk of, with melanoma being the most serious and often deadly type. There’s a reason many health experts don’t approve of the use of tanning beds, and at least one developed country has completely banned the use of them (hint: it’s Australia).
Although people frequently flock to warm, sunny, vacation destinations to soak up the rays, it doesn’t need to be hot outside to damage your skin and potentially increase your risk of skin cancer. A cooler, cloudy day can still be risky, so you shouldn’t only wear sunscreen when you’re somewhere hot and sunny. You often see parents lathering their children in sunscreen, and while kids have sensitive skin and would be in a lot of pain if they were seriously burned from the sun, adults need protection too.
As we stated People can be at a higher risk of developing cancer from their genetic makeup, or DNA. More specifically, certain mutated genes can be passed onto children from generation to generation, something you can’t prevent or control the effect of. The American Cancer Society explains that cancer is believed to be formed from more than one gene mutation, so you aren’t likely to develop cancer just from one mutated gene inherited through DNA. However, people who inherit these faulty genes are then at a disadvantage because they’re automatically starting off with one mutated gene.
Breast cancer is a prime example of this—there are two genes that can be inherited, which can greatly increase the risk of breast cancer within families or lineages. There’s testing that can be done to find out if you have one of these risky genes, and it’s believed that around 5- to 10-percent of breast cancer cases are caused by them. Although many women and some men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, it’s something that is often caught early enough to treat and overcome.
No list of factors that cause cancer would be complete without smoking. Cigarettes kill a staggering amount of people each year because of various types of cancer, many of which develop in the lung, esophagus, mouth, throat, and stomach. More and more cities are banning the use of cigarettes inside public establishments, on patios, and in vehicles as research has shown that second hand smoke is harmful and even deadly for those who don’t smoke. It seriously increases the risk of developing several types of cancer, as well as harmful diseases in other organs.
With all the advertisements about how dangerous smoking is to your health and its ability to greatly increase your risk of cancer, you might wonder how and why it’s legal. The good news is, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has tracked smoking trends since 1965, and the amount of adult smokers has decreased by over 20-percent in that time frame. If you need help quitting smoking, take advantage of the many helpful online tools available, join a support group, and talk to your doctor about kicking the habit for good.
Eating Habits and (Lack of) Physical Activity
There are many things that increase the risk of or cause cancer that can’t be prevented. But there are some lifestyle choices that contribute to the risk of developing it, and poor eating habits and little physical activity are two of them. The research relating to diet and cancer is still ongoing, but what we currently know is that a poor diet could increase the risk of cancer. More recent research has shown that the food we eat can not only influence developing the disease, but certain healthy foods may decrease or even help prevent cancer from developing. SUCH AS LEAN MEATS VEGGIES
How we treat our bodies is a major factor in being healthy—including limiting and reducing the risk of diseases like cancer, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and others that vary in severity. Exercising and getting regular physical activity play a role in this too. Being active not only reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, but also lowers the chance of obesity, hormone fluctuations, and immune system function. These factors have all been connected to cancer, so taking care of your body in every way is important. Being overweight TRIPLES your risk of UTERINE cancer: HWEW IA AOMW MOEW ABOUT IT
Fatty tissue produces the hormone oestrogen, which regulates a woman’s reproduction and is linked to the cancer when levels in the body are excessive
- Obesity increases a woman’s chance of the disease by a massive six times
- Other risk factors are diabetes, being postmenopause and not having children
- Women should look out for abnormal vaginal bleeding, as well as pain during sex
- If detected early, a sufferer’s survival chances beyond one year are 95 per cent
It’s a common fact that as you grow older, your chance of developing cancer increases. This isn’t surprising because many types of cancer are more common amongst older age groups. According to the Mayo Clinic, since cancer can take decades to develop it’s most common for people 65 and older to develop cancer. Cells don’t mutate into cancerous cells overnight, so slow changes can happen over a healthy person’s lifetime without them knowing. Sometimes it happens naturally,IS DETECTED AND DEALT WUTH BECAUSE OF EARLY SCREENING OR A HEALTHY IMMUNE SYSTEM while in some cases the cell mutates from the person being exposed to carcinogens, like cigarettes or environmental hazards.
No one can prevent cancer completely but there are steps that can be taken to help lower the risk of developing cancer. You can’t stop the aging process, but eating healthy, exercising, limiting exposure to carcinogens, and seeing your doctor for regular physicals, GETTING SCREENS are all important for your future—what you do now and how you treat your body as you grow older can have a long-term impact, and being as healthy as possible is the best way to avoid certain preventable diseases, including contributing to your risk of certain cancers.
Asbestos exposure, and mesothelioma as a result of this exposure, might be rare these days, but you’d be surprised by the amount of people suffering from cancer and other complications associated with asbestos. Over the years, the use of asbestos in buildings and materials has dramatically decreased, but it’s still possible to be exposed to these deadly minerals, especially in older buildings. And it’s still used frequently in some countries, so the dangers are still there.
Asbestos comes in the form of tiny fibers that are inhaled and cause damage to the lungs. It can also be ingested through water that gets contaminated from the pipes it runs through. In addition to lung cancer and mesothelioma, asbestos has shown to increase the risk of cancer in the larynx and ovaries. It’s also been linked to other forms of cancer, making asbestos exposure a very real and serious threat to the health of anyone exposed to it. People working in construction are most at risk because of the materials used and potential for mishandling and other ways of exposure
Excessive Alcohol Consumption
The impact of alcohol consumption on our health has been widely studied. Many experts believe a drink a day, or specifically a glass of wine a day, could be good for your health. Others believe there are too many potential harmful effects and that alcohol should be completely avoided. Regardless of these two sides, it’s agreed that excessive alcohol consumption can lead to numerous serious medical conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and mental health problems. Then there’s the effect on your personal and professional life, which can cause serious problems.
Some of the most common cancers linked to drinking too much over a long period of time are liver, colon, throat and breast cancer. In the case of breast cancer, it could increase your risk by around 10-percent. It’s important to note that drinking excessively doesn’t equate to being addicted to alcohol. There are many people who binge drink or regularly have 10 or more drinks per week but aren’t considered alcoholics or have a risky dependence on alcohol. But there is both short and long-term damage associated with drinking, so most experts agree that moderation is key.
Conditions Affecting the Immune System
The immune system is your body’s way to defend and prevent infections and diseases. Weakened immune systems or those that don’t function properly are at risk of allowing harmful cells to hurt the body. An unfortunate cause of cancer stems from immune systems that are already affected by another medical condition or syndrome. This makes it especially difficult on the person with the existing condition, as oftentimes the problems they currently face cause them to struggle even more and cause additional complications once cancer has also been diagnosed.
Since viruses weaken the immune system, there are certain types of viruses that could cause cancer or put the person at a higher risk of developing it in their lifetime. According to the American Cancer Society, some of these viruses include hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). Several other viruses have been linked to causing cancer but there isn’t enough evidence yet to prove the connection
AGENT ORANGE OTHER TOXINS
Types of cancer
Doctors divide cancer into types based on where it began. Four main types of cancer are:
- Carcinomas. A carcinoma begins in the skin or the tissue that covers the surface of internal organs and glands. Carcinomas usually form solid tumors. They are the most common type of cancer. Examples of carcinomas include prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer.
- Sarcomas. A sarcoma begins in the tissues that support and connect the body. A sarcoma can develop in fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, joints, blood or lymph vessels, cartilage, or bone.
- Leukemias. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood. Leukemia begins when healthy blood cells change and grow uncontrollably. The four main types of leukemia are acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia.
- Lymphomas. Lymphoma is a cancer that begins in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a network of vessels and glands that help fight infection. There are two main types of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
There are many other types of cancer. These are the main groups
How cancer spreads
As a cancerous tumor grows, the bloodstream or lymphatic system may carry cancer cells to other parts of the body. During this process, known as metastasis, the cancer cells grow and may develop into new tumors.
One of the first places a cancer often spreads is to regional lymph nodes draining the area. Lymph nodes are tiny, bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. They are located in clusters in different parts of the body, such as the neck, groin area, and under the arms.
Cancer may also spread through the bloodstream to distant parts of the body. These parts may include the bones, liver, lungs, or brain. Even if the cancer spreads, it is still named for the area where it began. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the lungs, it is called metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer.a very very common mistake and not just grammar
Often, a diagnosis begins when a person visits a doctor about an unusual symptom. The doctor will talk with the person about his or her medical history and symptoms. Then the doctor will perform various tests to find out the cause of these symptoms. Many people with cancer have no symptoms, though. For these people, cancer is diagnosed during a medical test for another issue or condition.
Sometimes a doctor diagnoses cancer after a cancer screening test in an otherwise healthy person. Examples of screening tests include colonoscopy, mammography, and a Pap test. A person may need additional tests to confirm or disprove the result of the screening test.
For most cancers, a biopsy is the only way to make a definite diagnosis. A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for further study.
Cancer and its treatment can cause several complications, including:
- Pain. Pain can be caused by cancer or by cancer treatment, though not all cancer is painful. Medications and other approaches can effectively treat cancer-related pain
- Fatigue. Fatigue in people with cancer has many causes, but it can often be managed. Fatigue associated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy treatments is common, but it’s usually temporary.
- Difficulty breathing. Cancer or cancer treatment may cause a feeling of being short of breath. Treatments may bring relief.
- Nausea. Certain cancers and cancer treatments can cause nausea. Your doctor can sometimes predict if your treatment is likely to cause nausea. Medications and other treatments may help you prevent or decrease nausea.
- Diarrhea or constipation. Cancer and cancer treatment can affect your bowels and cause diarrhea or constipation.
- Weight loss. Cancer and cancer treatment may cause weight loss. Cancer steals food from normal cells and deprives them of nutrients. This is often not affected by how many calories or what kind of food is eaten; it’s difficult to treat. In most cases, using artificial nutrition through tubes into the stomach or vein does not help change the weight loss.
- Chemical changes in your body. Cancer can upset the normal chemical balance in your body and increase your risk of serious complications. Signs and symptoms of chemical imbalances might include excessive thirst, frequent urination, constipation and confusion.
- Brain and nervous system problems. Cancer can press on nearby nerves and cause pain and loss of function of one part of your body. Cancer that involves the brain can cause headaches and stroke-like signs and symptoms, such as weakness on one side of your body.
- Unusual immune system reactions to cancer. In some cases the body’s immune system may react to the presence of cancer by attacking healthy cells. Called paraneoplastic syndrome, these very rare reactions can lead to a variety of signs and symptoms, such as difficulty walking and seizures.
- Cancer that spreads. As cancer advances, it may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Where cancer spreads depends on the type of cancer.
- Cancer that returns. Cancer survivors have a risk of cancer recurrence. Some cancers are more likely to recur than others. Ask your doctor about what you can do to reduce your risk of cancer recurrence. Your doctor may devise a follow-up care plan for you after treatment. This plan may include periodic scans and exams in the months and years after your treatment, to look for cancer recurrence.
- We will do more next weekLet’s see if there are any questions See you Next Tuesday at noon PST when we will look at PART 2 OF WHAT IS CANCER WITH A LOT OF REINFORCEMENT AND NEEDED REPEPTITION AND SOME NEW INFORMATION I am sure you are familiar with our opening song from chariots of fire. A man has a plan and in a day it is crushed…… so it is when you have been told you have cancer ,thoughts of loss of control, soul sucking anxiety, what about your family and the list goes on as it hits you like a ton of bricks.
- He rose above it in the film and so you to will be a hero ………I have seen no exception no matter how afraid you are, BUT WE MUST KNOW THAT WHICH WE ARE AFRAID OF WE MUST KNOW THE ERSONALITY OF THE BEAST TO BE BETTER ABLE TO FIGHT IT , WE MUST KNOW THE ENEMY AND THAT IS WHAT WE ARE GOING TO TALK ABOUT TODAY
- Hi DR Ryan here, medical oncologist AND PROFESSOR AND RETIRED COLONEL AND CANCER SURVIVOR and this is when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer. Modeled after my book of the same name available on th web site and Amazon
- WHAT IS CANCER WITH A LOT OF REINFORCEMENT FROM LAST WEEK AND SOME NEW NEEDED INFORMATION
- PART 2
- This is Dr Kevin Ryan author of the book when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer, a comprehensive text for newly diagnosed patients and their families available on the website of the same name and Amazon signing off radio www.w4cs.com the cancer support radio program and ARCHIVED AUDIO FILES ON iheart RADIO
- ANY QUESTION S
Remember Cancer is not just one disease.
There are many types of cancer. It’s not just one disease. Cancer can start in the lungs, the breast, the colon, or even in the blood. Cancers are alike in some ways, but they are different in the ways they grow and spread.
How are cancers alike?
The cells in our bodies all have certain jobs to do. Normal cells divide in an orderly way. They die when they are worn out or damaged, and new cells take their place. Cancer is when the cells start to grow out of control. The cancer cells keep on growing and making new cells. They crowd out normal cells. This causes problems in the part of the body where the cancer started.
Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body. For instance, cancer cells in the lung can travel to the bones and grow there. When cancer cells spread, it’s called metastasis (meh-TAS-tuh-sis). When lung cancer spreads to the bones, it’s still called lung cancer. And folks often confuse this The distinction is not academic as the original cancer behaves like the behavior of the orginal cancer not like the place is spread to. To doctors, the cancer cells in the bones look just like the ones from the lung. It’s not called bone cancer unless it started in the bones.
How are cancers different?
Some cancers grow and spread fast. Others grow more slowly. They also respond to treatment in different ways. Some types of cancer are best treated with surgery; others respond better to drugs called chemotherapy (key-mo-THER-uh-pee). Often 2 or more treatments are used to get the best results.
When someone has cancer, the doctor will want to find out what kind of cancer it is. People with cancer need treatment that works for their type of cancer.
What are tumors?
Most cancers form a lump called a tumor or a growth. But not all lumps are cancer. Doctors take out a piece of the lump and look at it to find out if it’s cancer. Lumps that are not cancer are called benign (be-NINE). Lumps that are cancer are called malignant (muh-LIG-nunt).
There are some cancers, like leukemia (cancer of the blood), that don’t form tumors. They grow in the blood cells or other cells of the body such as the bone marrow and or lymphnodes.
What stage is the cancer? We will talk more about that later
The doctor also needs to know if and how far the cancer has spread from where it started. This is called the cancer stage. You may have heard other people say that their cancer was stage 1 or stage 2. Knowing the stage of the cancer helps the doctor decide what type of treatment is best.
For each type of cancer there are tests that can be done to figure out the stage of the cancer. As a rule, a lower stage (such as a stage 1 or 2) means that the cancer has not spread very much. A higher number (such as a stage 3 or 4) means it has spread more. Stage 4 is the highest stage.
Ask your doctor to explain the stage of your cancer and what it means for you.
How is cancer treated?
The most common treatments for cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (ray-dee-A- shun). Although immuno therapy and a number of precision and targeted medicines and techniques are exciting , on the rise in treatment , early detection, screening finding early relapse with some in previously hopeless situations. We are on the edge of a brave new world and much later we will cover future treatments
Surgery can be used to take out the cancer. The doctor might also take out some or all of the body part the cancer affects. For breast cancer, part (or all) of the breast might be removed. For prostate cancer, the prostate gland might be taken out. Surgery is not used for all types of cancer. For example, blood cancers like leukemia are best treated with drugs.
Chemo (short for chemotherapy) is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Some chemo can be given by IV (into a vein through a needle), and others are a pill you swallow. Because chemo drugs travel to nearly all parts of the body, they are useful for cancer that has spread.
Radiation is also used to kill or slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be used alone or with surgery or chemo. Radiation treatment is like getting an x-ray. Sometimes it’s given by putting a “seed” inside the cancer to give off the radiation.
What treatment is best for me?
Your cancer treatment will depend on what’s best for you. Some cancers respond better to surgery; others respond better to chemo or radiation. Knowing the type of cancer you have is the first step toward knowing which treatments will work best for you.
The stage of your cancer will also help the doctor decide on the best treatment for you. A stage 3 or 4 cancer is likely to respond better to treatments that treat the whole body, like chemo.
Your health and the treatment you prefer will also play a part in deciding about cancer treatment. Not all types of treatment will work for your cancer, so ask what options you have. And treatments do have side effects, so ask about what to expect with each treatment.
Don’t be afraid to ask questions. It’s your right to know what treatments are most likely to help and what their side effects may be.
Why did this happen to me?
People with cancer often ask, “What did I do wrong?” or “Why me?” Doctors don’t know for sure what causes cancer. But we covered a lot of reasons When doctors can’t give a cause, people may come up with their own ideas about why it happened and many are wrong and suffer from guilt Nonetheless lifestyle choices have a major role.
Some people think they’re being punished for something they did or didn’t do in the past. Most people wonder if they did something to cause the cancer. In many cases they did but the guilt has no role and stopping the behavior and starting healthy ones even after diagnosis can actually be beneficial but in terms of the cancer, quality of life and psycho emotional status and sense of control and fighting back
If you’re having these feelings, you’re not alone. Thoughts and beliefs like this are common for people with cancer. You need to know that cancer is not a punishment for your past actions..It may be a consequence though. Try to not blame yourself or focus on looking for ways you might have prevented cancer. It does no good other than what I said
How to talk to your loved ones about cancer I cover this in the section called But What Do I say and we will repeat them then but here are some tips..
It can be hard to talk about cancer, even with the people you love. Learning you have cancer can stir many feelings, such as sadness, anger, and fear. Sometimes it’s hard to know how you’re feeling, much less talk to others about it.
Your loved ones may also have a hard time talking about cancer. It’s not easy for them to know what to say to help you or make you feel better.
Here are some tips to help you and your loved ones deal with cancer:
- Tell your family and friends about your cancer as soon as you feel up to it. Sooner or later, they’ll all know you have cancer. They might feel hurt or left out if they haven’t heard about it from you.
- When you talk to them, explain what kind of cancer you have and how it will be treated. Let them know that no one can catch it from you.
- Allow friends and family to help you, and tell them what kind of help you need. If you need a ride to the doctor’s office or hospital, let them know. If you need help around the house, let them know that, too. There may be times when you’re not sure what you need. That’s OK. Just let them know you aren’t sure, but you’ll let them know when you are.
- Tell the people who are closest to you how you feel. This may not be easy, but it can be a very important way to get the support you need when you need it most. If you have trouble talking about your feelings, you might find a support group or a mental health counselor to help you.
- If you have friends or family who tell you to “cheer up” when you’re not feeling good, it’s OK to ask them to just listen, and not tell you what to do. Sometimes you need to talk about what’s going on without getting advice in return.
- If some people are not OK with talking about your feelings, don’t be upset. Try talking to others who might listen.
- You may not be able to do things you were doing before you got cancer. If that’s true, let your family and friends know.
- It’s best for your family and friends to keep doing the things they did before you had cancer. They should not feel guilty about doing this.
- If you’re feeling sad or depressed, talk to your doctor, nurse, or religious leader. You can also call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345.
Cancer words you may hear A new vocabulary
These are words that you may hear your cancer care team use.
Benign (be-NINE): a tumor that’s not cancer
Biopsy (BY-op-see): taking out a piece of tissue to see if cancer cells are in it
Cancer (CAN-sur): a word used to describe more than 100 diseases in which cells grow out of control; or a tumor with cancer in it
Chemotherapy (key-mo-THER-uh-pee): the use of drugs to treat disease. The word most often refers to drugs used to treat cancer. Sometimes it’s just called “chemo.”
Malignant (muh-LIG-nunt): having cancer in it
Metastasis/Metastasized (meh-TAS-tuh-sis/meh-TAS-tuh-sized): the spread of cancer cells to distant parts of the body through the lymph system or bloodstream
Oncologist (on-KAHL-uh-jist): a doctor who treats people who have cancer
Radiation therapy (ray-dee-A-shun THER-uh-pee): the use of high-energy rays, like x-rays, to treat cancer
Remission (re-MISH-un): when signs or symptoms of cancer are all or partly gone
Stage: a word that tells whether a cancer has spread, and if so, how far
How can I learn more about my cancer?
If you have questions about cancer or need help finding resources in your area, please call the American Cancer Society at 1-800-227-2345. We’re there when you need us – 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
PART 2 A REVIEW
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the body’s normal control mechanism stops working. Old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor. Some cancers, such as leukemia, do not form tumors.
What are the most common forms of cancer?
There are five main categories of cancer:
- Carcinomas begin in the skin or tissues that line the internal organs.
- Sarcomas develop in the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle or other connective tissues.
- Leukemia begins in the blood and bone marrow.
- Lymphomas start in the immune system.
- Central nervous system cancers develop in the brain and spinal cord.Treatment options depend on the type of cancer, its stage, if the cancer has spread and your general health. The goal of treatment is to kill as many cancerous cells while reducing damage to normal cells nearby. Advances in technology make this possible.
- The three main treatments are:
- How is cancer treated?
- Surgery: directly removing the tumor
- Chemotherapy: using chemicals to kill cancer cells
- Radiation therapy: using X-rays to kill cancer cells
- AND NOW TARGETED PRECISION AND MOELCULAR
- gentic THERAPY AND IMUNO AND BIOLOGIGAL THERAPYWhat can you do to manage the side effects of cancer treatment? AND I COVER THAT LATER WHEN WE DEAL WITH SIDE EFFECTS
- Supportive care services describe a broad range of therapies designed to combat side effects and maintain well-being. Treating cancer requires focusing on more than the disease alone; it must also address the pain, fatigue, depression and other side effects that come with it.
- The same cancer type in one individual is very different from that cancer in another individual. Within a single type of cancer, such as breast cancer, researchers are discovering subtypes that each requires a different treatment approach.
- The future of cancer treatment lies in providing patients with an even greater level of personalization. Doctors are beginning to offer treatment options based on the genetic changes occurring in a specific tumor.
- An innovative new diagnostic tool, the genomic tumor assessment, examines a patient’s tumor genetically to identify the mechanism that caused the cancer. Genomic tumor assessment may result in a more personalized approach to cancer treatment
- What does the future hold for cancer treatment?
THUS CANCER IS A Collection of Related Diseases
Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.
Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.
When cancer develops, however, this orderly process breaks down. As cells become more and more abnormal, old or damaged cells survive when they should die, and new cells form when they are not needed. These extra cells can divide without stopping and may form growths called tumors.
Many cancers form solid tumors, which are masses of tissue. Cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not form solid tumors.
Cancerous tumors are malignant, which means they can spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. In addition, as these tumors grow, some cancer cells can break off and travel to distant places in the body through the blood or the lymph system
Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large, however. When removed, they usually don’t grow back, whereas malignant tumors sometimes do. Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life threatening.
Differences between Cancer Cells and Normal Cells
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in many ways that allow them to grow out of control and become invasive. One important difference is that cancer cells are less specialized than normal cells. That is, whereas normal cells mature into very distinct cell types with specific functions, cancer cells do not. This is one reason that, unlike normal cells, cancer cells continue to divide without stopping.
In addition, cancer cells are able to ignore signals that normally tell cells to stop dividing or that begin a process known as programmed cell death, or apoptosis, which the body uses to get rid of unneeded cells.
Cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that surround and feed a tumor—an area known as the microenvironment. For instance, cancer cells can induce nearby normal cells to form blood vessels that supply tumors with oxygen and nutrients, which they need to grow. These blood vessels also remove waste products from tumors.
Cancer cells are also often able to evade the immune system, a network of organs, tissues, and specialized cells that protects the body from infections and other conditions. Although the immune system normally removes damaged or abnormal cells from the body, some cancer cells are able to “hide” from the immune system.
Tumors can also use the immune system to stay alive and grow. For example, with the help of certain immune system cells that normally prevent a runaway immune response, cancer cells can actually keep the immune system from killing cancer cells.
How Cancer Arises
Cancer is a genetic disease—that is, it is caused by changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.
Genetic changes that cause cancer can be inherited from our parents. They can also arise during a person’s lifetime as a result of errors that occur as cells divide or because of damage to DNA caused by certain environmental exposures. Cancer-causing environmental exposures include substances, such as the chemicals in tobacco smoke, and radiation, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun. Each person’s cancer has a unique combination of genetic changes. As the cancer continues to grow, additional changes will occur. Even within the same tumor, different cells may have different genetic changes.
In general, cancer cells have more genetic changes, such as mutations in DNA, than normal cells. Some of these changes may have nothing to do with the cancer; they may be the result of the cancer, rather than its cause.
“Drivers” of Cancer
The genetic changes that contribute to cancer tend to affect three main types of genes—proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. These changes are sometimes called “drivers” of cancer.
Proto-oncogenes are involved in normal cell growth and division. However, when these genes are altered in certain ways or are more active than normal, they may become cancer-causing genes (or oncogenes), allowing cells to grow and survive when they should not.
Tumor suppressor genes are also involved in controlling cell growth and division. Cells with certain alterations in tumor suppressor genes may divide in an uncontrolled manner.
DNA repair genes are involved in fixing damaged DNA. Cells with mutations in these genes tend to develop additional mutations in other genes. Together, these mutations may cause the cells to become cancerous.
As scientists have learned more about the molecular changes that lead to cancer, they have found that certain mutations commonly occur in many types of cancer. Because of this, cancers are sometimes characterized by the types of genetic alterations that are believed to be driving them, not just by where they develop in the body and how the cancer cells look under the microscope.
DNA IS LIKE A LADDER WITH TWO IDENTICAL LONG LEGS AND RUNGS THAT ALWAYS MATCH IN A CERTAIN WAY THE LADDER AND RUNGS ARE MADE OF BUILDUBG BKICJS CAKKED NUCKEITIDES
The fidelity of the human genome is maintained by multiple pathways of DNA repair that respond to DNA damage or errors in replication.1 Mismatch repair (MMR) proteins proofread newly replicated DNA strands for mistakes. When an error is found, the MMR protein complex excises the incorrect building block in the DNA and the resulting gap is repaired.4 It is estimated that MMR proteins improve the accuracy of DNA replication by several orders of magnitude.5
Mutations of a principal MMR protein can result in the accumulation of DNA errors, which are compounded by subsequent cycles of DNA replication.6 Repetitive elements within the DNA are especially sensitive to MMR protein dysfunction and the gain or loss of nucleotide repeats within these repetitive elements is termed microsatellite instability (MSI).7 As the burden of pointS OF mutations and MSI increases, DNA stability is lost and cells accumulate malignant properties.8 The consequences of this cellular dysregulation are most clearly observed in patients with Lynch syndrome who carry germline mutations in one of the MMR proteins.9 Most commonly, these patients develop colorectal cancer and women who carry these mutations are also at significant risk for endometrial and ovarian cancer.10 Patients with Lynch syndrome are also at increased risk for gastric, pancreatic, small bowel, urothelial cancers, and gliomas in the brain.10
When Cancer Spreads
In metastasis, cancer cells break away from where they first formed (primary cancer), travel through the blood or lymph system, and form new tumors (metastatic tumors) in other parts of the body. The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor.
A cancer that has spread from the place where it first started to another place in the body is called metastatic cancer. The process by which cancer cells spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis.
Metastatic cancer has the same name and the same type of cancer cells as the original, or primary, cancer. For example, breast cancer that spreads to and forms a metastatic tumor in the lung is metastatic breast cancer, not lung cancer.
Under a microscope, metastatic cancer cells generally look the same as cells of the original cancer. Moreover, metastatic cancer cells and cells of the original cancer usually have some molecular features in common, such as the presence of specific chromosome changes.
Treatment may help prolong the lives of some people with metastatic cancer. In general, though, the primary goal of treatments for metastatic cancer is to control the growth of the cancer or to relieve symptoms caused by it. Metastatic tumors can cause severe damage to how the body functions, and most people who die of cancer die of metastatic disease.
Tissue Changes that Are Not Cancer
Not every change in the body’s tissues is cancer. Some tissue changes may develop into cancer if they are not treated, however. Here are some examples of tissue changes that are not cancer but, in some cases, are monitored:
Hyperplasia occurs when cells within a tissue divide faster than normal and extra cells build up, or proliferate. However, the cells and the way the tissue is organized look normal under a microscope. Hyperplasia can be caused by several factors or conditions, including chronic irritation.
Dysplasia is a more serious condition than hyperplasia. In dysplasia, there is also a buildup of extra cells. But the cells look abnormal and there are changes in how the tissue is organized. In general, the more abnormal the cells and tissue look, the greater the chance that cancer will form.
Some types of dysplasia may need to be monitored or treated. An example of dysplasia is an abnormal mole (called a dysplastic nevus) that forms on the skin. A dysplastic nevus can turn into melanoma, although most do not.
An even more serious condition is carcinoma in situ. Although it is sometimes called cancer, carcinoma in situ is not cancer because the abnormal cells do not spread beyond the original tissue. That is, they do not invade nearby tissue the way that cancer cells do. But, because some carcinomas in situ may become cancer, they are usually treated.
Normal cells may become cancer cells. Before cancer cells form in tissues of the body, the cells go through HYPERPASIA AND DYSPLASIA
Types of Cancer
There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form. For example, lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and brain cancer starts in cells of the brain. Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an epithelial cell or a squamous cell.
You can search NCI’s website for information on specific types of cancer based on the cancer’s location in the body or by using THEIR A to Z List of Cancers. THEY also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults.
Here are some categories of cancers that begin in specific types of cells:
Carcinomas are the most common type of cancer. They are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces of the body. There are many types of epithelial cells, which often have a column-like shape when viewed under a microscope.
Carcinomas that begin in different epithelial cell types have specific names:
Adenocarcinoma is a cancer that forms in epithelial cells that produce fluids or mucus. Tissues with this type of epithelial cell are sometimes called glandular tissues. Most cancers of the breast, colon, and prostate are adenocarcinomas.
Basal cell carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the lower or basal (base) layer of the epidermis, which is a person’s outer layer of skin.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that forms in squamous cells, which are epithelial cells that lie just beneath the outer surface of the skin. Squamous cells also line many other organs, including the stomach, intestines, lungs, bladder, and kidneys. Squamous cells look flat, like fish scales, when viewed under a microscope. Squamous cell carcinomas are sometimes called epidermoid carcinomas.
Transitional cell carcinoma is a cancer that forms in a type of epithelial tissue called transitional epithelium, or urothelium. This tissue, which is made up of many layers of epithelial cells that can get bigger and smaller, is found in the linings of the bladder, ureters, and part of the kidneys (renal pelvis), and a few other organs. Some cancers of the bladder, ureters, and kidneys are transitional cell carcinomas.
Soft tissue sarcoma forms in soft tissues of the body, including muscle, tendons, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, and tissue around joints.
Sarcomas are cancers that form in bone and soft tissues, including muscle, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and fibrous tissue (such as tendons and ligaments).
Osteosarcoma is the most common cancer of bone. The most common types of soft tissue sarcoma are leiomyosarcoma, Kaposi sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, liposarcoma, and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
Blood cancers such as multiple myeloma affect the function and production of blood cells. In most MYELOMA blood cancers, normal blood cell development is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of abnormal blood cells called plasma cells which make anribodies. The abnormal blood cells can prevent blood from fighting off infection or preventing uncontrolled bleeding. In rare cases myeloma is found in one place in the body, and is called solitary myeloma. Myeloma blood cancer treatment may include chemotherapy, radiation and stem cell transplant.
There are three main blood cancer types:
HUGE PROGRESS IN MULTIPLE RELAPSES
Leukemia is a blood cancer in both the bone marrow and in blood itself. Both types of leukemia involve an over-production of white blood cells. Lymphocytic leukemia involves over-production of lymphocytes, and myelogenous leukemia involves over-production of white blood cells called granulocytes. Over time, leukemia cells crowd out normal blood cells leading to serious bleeding and infection.
Lymphoma is a blood cancer that develops in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is made up of groups of lymph nodes which keep body fluids free from infection. The blood cancer may spread from one group of lymph nodes to another in order (Hodgkin lymphoma) or spread randomly (non-Hodgkin lymphoma).
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in lymphocytes (T cells or B cells). These are disease-fighting white blood cells that are part of the immune system. In lymphoma, abnormal lymphocytes build up in lymph nodes and lymph vessels, as well as in other organs of the body.
There are two main types of lymphoma:
Hodgkin lymphoma – People with this disease have abnormal lymphocytes that are called Reed-Sternberg cells. These cells usually form from B cells.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma – This is a large group of cancers that start in lymphocytes. The cancers can grow quickly or slowly and can form from B cells or T cells.
Cancers that begin in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called leukemias. These cancers do not form solid tumors. Instead, large numbers of abnormal white blood cells (leukemia cells and leukemic blast cells) build up in the blood and bone marrow, crowding out normal blood cells. The low level of normal blood cells can make it harder for the body to get oxygen to its tissues, control bleeding, or fight infections.
There are four common types of leukemia, which are grouped based on how quickly the disease gets worse (acute or chronic) and on the type of blood cell the cancer starts in (lymphoblastic or myeloid).
AS WE DISCUSSED Multiple myeloma is cancer that begins in plasma cells, another type of immune cell. The abnormal plasma cells, called myeloma cells, build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in bones all through the body. Multiple myeloma is also called plasma cell myeloma.
Melanoma is cancer that begins in cells that become melanocytes, which are specialized cells that make melanin (the pigment that gives skin its color). Most melanomas form on the skin, but melanomas can also form in other pigmented tissues, such as the eye.
Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors
There are different types of brain and spinal cord tumors. These tumors are named based on the type of cell in which they formed and where the tumor first formed in the central nervous system. For example, an astrocytic tumor begins in star-shaped brain cells called astrocytes, which help keep nerve cells healthy. Brain tumors can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).
Other Types of Tumors
Germ Cell Tumors
Germ cell tumors are a type of tumor that begins in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. These tumors can occur almost anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant.
Neuroendocrine tumors form from cells that release hormones into the blood in response to a signal from the nervous system. These tumors, which may make higher-than-normal amounts of hormones, can cause many different symptoms. Neuroendocrine tumors may be benign or malignant.
Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor. They are slow-growing tumors that are usually found in the gastrointestinal system (most often in the rectum and small intestine). Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
Let’s see if there are any questions
This is Dr Kevin Ryan author of the book when tumor is the rumor and cancer is the answer, a comprehensive text for newly diagnosed patients and their families available on the website of the same name and Amazon signing off radio www.w4cs.com the cancer support radio program and ARCHIVED AUDIO FILES ON iheart RADIO
See you Next Tuesday at noon PST when we will look MORE OF THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF THE OVERVIEW OF CANCER