Circulating Epigenetic Biomarkers in Lung Malignancies: From Early Diagnosis to Therapy

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n=t.document;!n.readyState||"complete"!=n.readyState&&"loaded"!=n.readyState?!va()||0<=ga(xa(),11)?L(n,"DOMContentLoaded",pc,"osd_listener::dcl"):L(n,"readystatechange",function(){"complete"!=n.readyState&&"loaded"!=n.readyState||pc()},"osd_listener::rsc"):pc();-1==S?Y=f?3:1:-2==S?Y=3:0https://z.moatads.com/elsevierdfp386961154632/moatad.js#moatClientLevel1=43882527&moatClientLevel2=344426007&moatClientLevel3=120840087&moatClientLevel4=90271655367&moatClientSlicer1=46568847&moatClientSlicer2=101720727Circulating Epigenetic Biomarkers in Lung Malignancies: From Early Diagnosis to Therapy

Again we see the theme of tumor cells, molecules on its surface, tumor DNA being shed into the circulation This time it is lung cancer that is being studied. But first lets get a feel for epigenetics which is  the study of heritable changes in gene expression (active versus inactive genes) that does not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence — a change in phenotype( what is there-what you see ) without a change in genotype-the DNA — which in turn affects how cells read the genes.As an organism grows and develops, carefully orchestrated chemical reactions activate and deactivate parts of the genome at strategic times and in specific locations. Epigenetics is the study of these chemical reactions and the factors that inpigenetics, the study of the chemical modification of specific genes or gene-associated proteins of an organism. Epigenetic modifications can define how the information in genes is expressed and used by cells. The term epigenetics came into general use in the early 1940s, when British embryologist Conrad Waddington used it to describe the interactions between genes and gene products, which direct development and give rise to an organism’s phenotype (observable characteristics). Since then, information revealed by epigenetics studies has revolutionized the fields of genetics and developmental biology. Specifically, researchers have uncovered a range of possible chemical modifications to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and to proteins called histones that associate tightly with DNA in the nucleus. These modifications can determine when or even if a given gene is expressed in a cell or organism.

Types of epigenetic modifications

The principal type of epigenetic modification that is understood is methylation (addition of a methyl group). Methylation can be transient and can change rapidly during the life span of a cell or organism, or it can be essentially permanent once set early in the development of the embryo. Other largely permanent chemical modifications also play a role; these include histone acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), ubiquitination (the addition of a ubiquitin protein), and phosphorylation (the addition of a phosphoryl group). The specific location of a given chemical modification can also be important. For example, certain histone modifications distinguish actively expressed regions of the genome from regions that are not highly expressed. These modifications may correlate with chromosome banding patterns generated by staining procedures common in karyotype analyses. Similarly, specific histone modifications may distinguish actively expressed genes from genes that are poised for expression or genes that are repressed in different kinds of cells

Now that was heavy biology BUT you now understand how elegantly out knowledge is of how the genetics of normal and non normal cells has grown

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