Aspirin Nearly Doubles Survival in GI Cancers
The plant and animal kingdom hits another home run- with a 100 year old drug in almost every household- aspirin The therapeutic properties of willow tree bark have been known for at least 2,400 years, with Hippocrates prescribing it for headaches. Salicylic acid, the active ingredient of aspirin, was first isolated from the bark of the willow tree in 1763 by Edward Stone of Wadham College, University of Oxford. Felix Hoffmann, a chemist at Bayer, is credited with the synthesis of aspirin in 1897, though whether this was of his own initiative or under the direction of Arthur Eichengrün is controversial. Aspirin is one of the most widely used medications in the world with an estimated 40,000 tonnes of it being consumed each year.[. Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a salicylate medication, often used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Aspirin also has an antiplatelet effect by stopping the binding together of platelets and preventing a patch over damaged walls of blood vessels. STOPPING THE BINDING OF PLATELETS MAY WELL BE STOPPING THE WELL KNOW TRAIT OF GI TUMOR CELLS OF SURROUNDING THEMSELVES WITH PLATELETS- NOR SURROUNDING PLATELETS- HELLO HOST IMMUNE SYSTEM. Aspirin is also used long-term, at low doses, to help prevent heart attacks, strokes, and blood clot formation in people at high risk of developing blood clots. Low doses of aspirin may be given immediately after a heart attack to reduce the risk of another heart attack or of the death of cardiac tissue. Aspirin is partly effective at preventing certain types of cancer, particularly colorectal cancer.
The main side effects of aspirin are gastrointestinal ulcers, stomach bleeding, and ringing in the ears, especially with higher doses. While daily aspirin can help prevent a clot-related stroke, it may increase risk of a bleeding stroke (hemorrhagic stroke). In children and adolescents, aspirin is not recommended for flu-like symptoms or viral illnesses, because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome.
Aspirin is part of a group of medications called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but differs from most other NSAIDs in the mechanism of action. The salicylates have similar effects (antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic) to the other NSAIDs and inhibit the same enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), but aspirin does so in an irreversible manner and, unlike others, affects the COX-1 variant more than the COX-2 variant of the enzyme. However now we are looking at what effect low dose aspirin may have AFTER the diagnosis and primary treatment of various , not just colon , gastrointestinal malignancies. This is a retrospective study BUT is so compelling that The netherlands is launching a well designed trial to help us understand what malignancie, what dose schedule, what risks, duration of aspirin treatment Dr Ryan and Other sources
VIENNA — Low-dose daily aspirin almost doubles survival among patients with a range of gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers, reveals an analysis of prescribing data from the Netherlands.
The finding comes from a retrospective study of almost 1400 GI cancer patients presented here at European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2015. The researchers found that among a subgroup of patients (8.3%) who took aspirin post-diagnosis, the 5-year overall survival was 75% among daily aspirin users vs just more than 40% in those who did not take the drug.
Most patients had cancer of the colon (48%); the next most common sites were the rectum (42.8%) and the esophagus (10.2%).
The data were presented by Martine Frouws, MD, from Leiden University Medical Centre, in the Netherlands.
Having found benefits in patients with a range of different GI cancers and at all stages of the disease, the team is now conducting a randomized controlled trial to confirm the benefits of this low-cost, low-risk therapeutic option.
“Medical research is focusing more and more on personalized medicine, but many personalized treatments are expensive and only useful in small populations,” Dr Frouws commented in a statement.
“We believe that our research shows quite the opposite — it demonstrates the considerable benefit of a cheap, well-established, and easily obtainable drug in a larger group of patients, while still targeting the treatment to a specific individual.”
Aspirin for Prevention and as an Adjunct
Aspirin is already well known for its ability to protect against colorectal cancer as well as other diseases. These new data “tell us that not only can aspirin prevent disease, but low-dose aspirin is important as an adjunct therapy for gastrointestinal cancers,” said Nadir Arber, MD, head of the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel, in a statement.
“Aspirin may serve as the magic bullet because it can target and prevent ischemic heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease, the three major health catastrophes in the third millennium,” he was quoted as saying in the release.
Adding a note of caution, he said: “The appropriate dosage and duration of aspirin use and risk-benefit ratios of aspirin use remain to be determined, but in the area of precision medicine, genetic information and blood and/or urinary biomarkers may help in tailoring treatment to those who will benefit most, while limiting adverse effects.”
Analysis of Dispensing Data
Dr Frouws and colleagues examined 13,715 patients diagnosed with a GI cancer between 1998 and 2011, linking them to drug dispensing data from PHARMO, the Institute for Drug Outcomes Research, in Utrecht, the Netherlands, to obtain each separate prescription per patient.
In all, 30.5% of the patients used aspirin before their diagnosis, 8.3% started using the drug after their diagnosis, and 61.1% did not take aspirin at all. The patients typically took low-dose aspirin (80-100 mg).
The median follow-up time was 48.6 months; 28% of patients survived for at least 5 years.
The results reported here at the meeting show that overall survival at 5 years was 75% in the subgroup of patients who took aspirin post-diagnosis vs just 42% for those who did not take the drug.
Analyzing the result by type of GI cancer revealed that there was a substantial and significant benefit with daily low-dose aspirin for esophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancer.
There was also a borderline significant benefit for patients with hepatobiliary tract cancer who took aspirin. However, there was no benefit from low-dose aspirin for patients with pancreatic cancer.
Crucially, the significant survival benefits were seen in cancer patients at all stages, and the results held after adjusting for sex, age, stage of cancer, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and other medical conditions or disorders.
The researchers believe that the beneficial effect of cancer is due to its antiplatelet effect, in that it may prevent circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from “hiding” inside the platelets that surround them. By inhibiting platelet function, aspirin exposes the CTCs to the immune system and, thus, leads to their elimination.
Summarizing, Dr Frouws told a press briefing: “Patients using aspirin after diagnosis of a gastrointestinal malignancy have a chance of survival twice as high compared to patients not using aspirin.
“If aspirin was to become a regular treatment for cancer, it’s going to have a large effect on cancer survival and global health,” she said.
Discussing the next steps for their research, Dr Frouws commented: “Now we would like to analyze tumor material from these patients to try and discover which ones would benefit from aspirin treatment. Through studying the characteristics of tumors in patients where aspirin was beneficial, we should be able to identify patients who could profit from such treatment in the future.”
To those ends, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is under way in the Netherlands to examine the impact of aspirin 80 mg once daily on overall colon cancer survival in elderly patients. The team hopes to expand the trial to include further GI tract sites.
If the findings show a benefit from daily low-dose aspirin, Dr Frouws believes it could change the way clinicians look at the 100-year-old drug.
“Given that aspirin is a cheap, off-patent drug with relatively few side effects, this will have a great impact on healthcare systems as well as patients,” she said.
The study received no outside funding. No significant financial relationships have been disclosed.
European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2015: Abstract 2306. Presented September 28, 2015